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[TUT] Modules and efficient scripting


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ot_207
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Old 03-29-2009 , 07:47   [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #1

This tutorial is meant for all the scripters arround amxx, recommended mostly for intermediate scripters.

First of all what is an efficient plugin?
An efficient plugin is the one that combines low cpu & memory usage doing what it is suposed to do.

Let me give an example:
Let's try to think of a method to see wether a player was killed. This method can be done different ways but I will point out 2 of them, a good one and a bad one.
The good one is when we hook the DeathMsg event
PHP Code:
register_event("DeathMsg""event_death""a")

public 
event_death()
{
    new 
attacker read_data(1)
    new 
victim read_data(2)


The bad one is that we use PreThink and check wether the player has been killed, in this method I will use the engine module.
PHP Code:
public client_PreThink(id)
{
    if (!
is_user_alive(id))
    {
        new 
attacker get_user_attacker(id)
    }

What problem of efficency do we have here?
Well the problem is that PreThink is called > 30 times per second and that means that we are checking too many times wether the player has been killed. This is a problem becouse it will cause a lot of CPU usage, a problem that small computers can't handle. By a lot of CPU usage means that we will have a lot of lag.

Let's give again a better example of inefficency but a more subtile one.
Let's try to hook the DeathMsg event and get all the info that we need.
This is the best method of getting al the info we need is in the first example. The second one will use too many functions that in this case aren't needed...
PHP Code:
register_event("DeathMsg""event_death""a")

public 
event_death()
{
    new 
attacker read_data(1)
    new 
victim read_data(2)
    new 
weapon_name[33],weapon_id
    
// get the weapon name
    
read_data(4,weapon_name,32)
    
format(weapon_name,32,"weapon_%s",weapon_name)
    
weapon_id get_weaponid(weapon_name)

PHP Code:
register_event("DeathMsg""event_death""a")

public 
event_death()
{
    new 
victim read_data(2)
    new 
attacker get_user_attacker(victim)
    new 
weapon get_user_weapon(attacker)

What problem of efficency do we have here?
Well the problem is that until all the event_death forwards will be called, the data that we have will be stored in the core, and it will be accessible through read_data() function. So in this case it is unnecesarry to access the engine again to get this info since the core has already prepaired them for us.

What is the most efficient module?
Well this question depends on the things you would like to do in a plugin.
Most people say that FakeMeta is the best module arround but it is not the most efficient! The module uses a lot of cpu becouse of the big database of function that it provides. To this question this is the answer: every module has good things to offer, we must use the special functions provided by every module.

That means that when we can do a thing in engine or fun or ham it will be best to use engine/fun/ham instead of fakemeta due to lot of CPU usage.
I'll give you an example.

If we use fm_is_in_viewcone, I will mark the places where the plugin comunicates with the module:
PHP Code:
stock bool:fm_is_in_viewcone(index, const Float:point[3]) {
    new 
Float:angles[3];
    
pev(indexpev_anglesangles); // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE
    
engfunc(EngFunc_MakeVectorsangles); // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE
    
global_get(glb_v_forwardangles); // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE
    
angles[2] = 0.0

    new 
Float:origin[3], Float:diff[3], Float:norm[3];
    
pev(indexpev_originorigin); // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE
    
xs_vec_sub(pointorigindiff);
    
diff[2] = 0.0;
    
xs_vec_normalize(diffnorm);

    new 
Float:dotFloat:fov;
    
dot xs_vec_dot(normangles);
    
pev(indexpev_fovfov); // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE
    
if (dot >= floatcos(fov M_PI 360))
        return 
true;

    return 
false;

In this function we see 5 comunications with the module.

When we use engine for example:
PHP Code:
is_in_viewcone entityFloat:origin[3] ) // COMUNICATION WITH MODULE 
We have only one comunication with the module.

This is what happens when we use fakemeta:
PLUGIN -> FAKEMETA -> METAMOD -> GAME ENGINE -> METAMOD -> FAKEMETA -> PLUGIN
Multiply it by 5 times and we will see the execution time of the fm_is_in_viewcone.
This is what happens when we use engine module:
PLUGIN -> ENGINE -> METAMOD -> GAME ENGINE -> METAMOD -> ENGINE -> PLUGIN
Only one time.
It also depends on the data we want to receive or set.

This is why in some situations we should use fun or engine over fakemeta. They use not as much CPU and have low memory usage in this situation.
To confirm what I've said about module comunications I will post here some benchmarks that will compare fakemeta with the cstrike module and engine module natives/stocks. You will see that this makes the difference.

Entity_set_origin vs. fm_entity_set_origin [fakemeta vs engine]
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000017 / 0.000017 / 0.000017
   n |                     random_float |      60000 | 0.134438 / 0.000001 / 0.000116
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000006 / 0.000006 / 0.000006
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000010 / 0.000010 / 0.000010
   p |                          profile |          1 | 0.182920 / 0.182920 / 0.182920
   
   n |                entity_set_origin |      10000 | 0.035055 / 0.000002 / 0.000082
   
   n |                              pev |      20000 | 0.044686 / 0.000001 / 0.000183
   n |                          engfunc |      20000 | 0.052677 / 0.000002 / 0.000073
   f |             fm_entity_set_origin |      10000 | 0.113504 / 0.000008 / 0.000373
0 natives, 0 public callbacks, 2 function calls were not executed.
Fm_is_in_viewcone vs is_in_viewcone. [fakemeta vs engine]
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   p |                          profile |          1 | 0.112695 / 0.112695 / 0.112695
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000004 / 0.000004 / 0.000004
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   
   n |                      floatsqroot |      10000 | 0.022363 / 0.000001 / 0.000038
   n |                         floatdiv |      10000 | 0.022110 / 0.000001 / 0.000036
   n |                              pev |      30000 | 0.067148 / 0.000001 / 0.000086
   n |                          engfunc |      10000 | 0.025055 / 0.000001 / 0.000011
   n |                       global_get |      10000 | 0.022244 / 0.000001 / 0.000031
   n |                         floatcos |      10000 | 0.022657 / 0.000001 / 0.000209
   n |                     random_float |      30000 | 0.066903 / 0.000001 / 0.000035
   f |             operator/(Float:,_:) |      10000 | 0.022434 / 0.000001 / 0.000077
   f |        operator>=(Float:,Float:) |      10000 | 0.021916 / 0.000001 / 0.000011
   f |                         xs_rsqrt |      10000 | 0.067513 / 0.000004 / 0.000110
   f |                       xs_vec_sub |      10000 | 0.021978 / 0.000001 / 0.000009
   f |                 xs_vec_normalize |      10000 | 0.045749 / 0.000003 / 0.000073
   f |                       xs_vec_dot |      10000 | 0.022200 / 0.000001 / 0.000047
   f |                fm_is_in_viewcone |      10000 | 0.271947 / 0.000022 / 0.000220
   
   n |                   is_in_viewcone |      10000 | 0.025373 / 0.000002 / 0.000104
   
6 natives, 0 public callbacks, 2 function calls were not executed.
Fm_entity_range vs entity_range [fakemeta vs engine]
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000004 / 0.000004 / 0.000004
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000011 / 0.000011 / 0.000011
   p |                          profile |          1 | 0.046530 / 0.046530 / 0.046530
   
   n |                     entity_range |      10000 | 0.022555 / 0.000001 / 0.000056
   
   f |                  fm_entity_range |      10000 | 0.092081 / 0.000006 / 0.000087
   n |                              pev |      20000 | 0.044973 / 0.000001 / 0.000037
   n |                   get_distance_f |      10000 | 0.022852 / 0.000001 / 0.000025
0 natives, 0 public callbacks, 2 function calls were not executed.
Ctrike module vs Fakemeta module.
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                    get_pdata_int |     300000 | 0.647404 / 0.000001 / 0.000253
   n |                    set_pdata_int |     150064 | 0.328161 / 0.000001 / 0.000331
   n |                   get_user_msgid |          2 | 0.000006 / 0.000003 / 0.000004
   n |                   emessage_begin |     150064 | 0.379386 / 0.000002 / 0.000309
   n |                      ewrite_long |     100000 | 0.238946 / 0.000001 / 0.000458
   n |                      ewrite_byte |     225160 | 0.518973 / 0.000001 / 0.000357
   n |                     emessage_end |     150064 | 0.374745 / 0.000002 / 0.000218
   n |                          set_pev |      50064 | 0.110391 / 0.000001 / 0.000077
   n |                    ewrite_string |      50064 | 0.121614 / 0.000001 / 0.000250
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   n |                           random |     300000 | 0.648347 / 0.000001 / 0.000217
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000004 / 0.000004 / 0.000004
   p |                        benchmark |          1 | 2.511592 / 2.511592 / 2.511592
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   
   n |                cs_get_user_money |     100000 | 0.220167 / 0.000001 / 0.000414
   f |             fm_cs_get_user_money |     100000 | 0.446478 / 0.000003 / 0.000413
   
   n |                cs_set_user_money |     100000 | 0.276739 / 0.000002 / 0.000329
   f |             fm_cs_set_user_money |     100000 | 1.344050 / 0.000010 / 0.001747
   
   n |               cs_get_user_defuse |     100000 | 0.220294 / 0.000001 / 0.000094
   f |            fm_cs_get_user_defuse |     100000 | 0.452164 / 0.000003 / 0.000161
   
   n |               cs_set_user_defuse |     100000 | 0.336809 / 0.000002 / 0.000270
   f |            fm_cs_set_user_defuse |     100000 | 1.294073 / 0.000003 / 0.000333
Now we will talk about module forwards. We can see that we have a lot of forwards that our modules can offer. Here we will refer to only the fakemeta,engine and hamsandwich forwards.
What is the difference between the forwards of the modules? Well the main difference of the forwards is the registration method.

What module provides the most efficient forwards?
The difference when we talk about efficency will be almost negligible.

Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000010 / 0.000010 / 0.000010
   n |                 register_forward |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   p |                   playerPreThink |       2001 | 0.004775 / 0.000002 / 0.000007
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
0 natives, 0 public callbacks, 2 function calls were not executed.


date: Mon Mar 30 15:46:09 2009 map: de_dust2
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000005 / 0.000005 / 0.000005
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   p |                  client_PreThink |       2001 | 0.004718 / 0.000002 / 0.000018
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000004 / 0.000004 / 0.000004
Let's now compare the entity property manipulation of engine versus fakemeta. Fakemeta will be a little slower than engine but good enough to use.
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000009 / 0.000009 / 0.000009
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000013 / 0.000013 / 0.000013
   n |                     random_float |     300000 | 0.665777 / 0.000001 / 0.000323
   n |                          set_pev |     100000 | 0.222021 / 0.000001 / 0.000154
   n |                entity_set_vector |     100000 | 0.220881 / 0.000001 / 0.000152
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   p |                          profile |          1 | 1.132186 / 1.132186 / 1.132186
0 natives, 0 public callbacks, 2 function calls were not executed.
Code:
type |                             name |      calls | time / min / max
-------------------------------------------------------------------
   n |                   precache_model |          1 | 0.015410 / 0.015410 / 0.015410
   n |                  register_plugin |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   n |                   register_clcmd |          1 | 0.000016 / 0.000016 / 0.000016
   n |                       server_cmd |          1 | 0.000007 / 0.000007 / 0.000007
   p |                      plugin_init |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   p |                  plugin_precache |          1 | 0.000008 / 0.000008 / 0.000008
   p |                          profile |          1 | 0.466186 / 0.466186 / 0.466186
   
   n |                        pev_valid |     100000 | 0.228750 / 0.000001 / 0.000165
   n |                     is_valid_ent |     100000 | 0.226901 / 0.000001 / 0.000095
Now we must think wether it is good to cache results or not.
What is the advantage that will appear once we cache them?
Well the advantage is that it will use less cpu and it will make a big difference when we talk about repetitive checks (like prethink forwards), the disadvantage is that it uses memory.

What does it mean to cache results?
For example we want to know wether a player is a bot.
Instead of using this function all the time:
PHP Code:
is_user_bot(id
It is better to do this:
PHP Code:
new bool:cl_is_bot[33]
public 
client_putinserver(id)
{
    if (
is_user_bot(id))
        
cl_is_bot[id] = true;
}
// now we only use cl_is_bot[id] not is_user_bot(id) 
Instead loosing time with module comunications we only need to access the memory wich will make things much faster!
You must remember that doing this will make you plugin harder to make.

Here is an example with result cache and tests, you will see that we will have a big difference, so it would be advisable to use cache in order to make a plugin efficient.
Here is the main idea of what MeRcyLeZZ wants to do in order to improve his plugin.
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...91&postcount=1
Here are the results.
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...28&postcount=3

I will quote Hawk552s opition about the Fakemeta High sindrome (fakemeta general usage).
Quote:
Originally Posted by Hawk552 View Post
I didn't say that. Porting stuff to Fakemeta is not a be-all end-all solution. There are many, many reasons not to use Fakemeta. Here are some of them:
  • Multiforwards as used in Engine and Fun are far more efficient once more than one plugin is using it
  • Engine and Fun are simpler to use and easier to read
  • Engine and Fun natives often require less parameters and as such the VM layer can run faster
  • More people know how to use Engine and Fun
  • Fakemeta has far less protection against bad use and can crash a server much more easily
  • Engine and Fun are better documented with more available support and example code
  • Engine and Fun themselves act as wrappers which means that if an update breaks something, plugins do not have to be recompiled - AMXX can just be updated. This is also beneficial as less code is run in the VM layer, making it faster
Tell me: can you know whether the user is already running a plugin using Engine or Fun? Would it even be worth the resources to check?

Why are we fretting over these trivial optimizations (which you're actually largely part wrong about being faster in the first place) as opposed to making code legible? Why should I write code that is 4x as long and is slower just because the API I'm using is more capable? Why don't we just use ASM, under that reasoning?

We've had this debate before. GHW_Chronic made it a requirement for plugins to only use Fakemeta. This makes absolutely no sense. There's no reason we can't use Fun and Engine for everything other than the things only Fakemeta can do.

I've written many APIs (see Apollo RP in my signature); I can guarantee you, far more than you have. From that experience, I know that capability is not the most important quality of an API. An API, especially for something like AMXX, should be simple. The way we have the APIs divided up is great. We should only encourage people to use Fakemeta when it is necessary and no other module can accomplish the task at hand.

There is absolutely no reason to make a point of using Fakemeta exclusively unless you're trying to appear intelligent or you actually know it better than Engine and Fun. Stop telling beginners to use Fakemeta, it will only confuse them and makes things more complicated than they have to be.
Conclusions:
We must use the module when it has a specific good function that others don't provide.
The less module comunications the better!!!
And remember this tutorial does not want to say not to use fakemeta! It advises to use it only when it needs to be used!
A plugin isn't bad if it uses 10 modules instead of just 2...
If you propose to cache some results in a plugin, it will be more efficient but there will be a problem when we talk about easy scripting.

Good tutorials that fit in with this one:
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showthread.php?t=43049
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showthread.php?t=40340
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showthr...296#post809296

Benchmark tool, for the people who want to do some more tests, if you want feel free to post the results in the efficency tutorial:
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showthread.php?t=67752

My comment: Hope that it is ok, if you would like to add some more please tell me. I'm not used on writing such long posts... [Hope that my english was fine ...]
I thank all that spend their time reading this tutorial, suggested improvements and contributed to this tutorial!
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Last edited by ConnorMcLeod; 11-17-2011 at 12:56. Reason: Removed wrong flag (e) in register_event with global event
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tuty
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Old 03-29-2009 , 08:05   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #2

Code:
Conclusion:
We must use the module when it has a specific good function that others don't provide. 
The less module comunications the better!!! 



you right!
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hleV
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Old 03-29-2009 , 08:27   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #3

I hated to enable more modules than just FM & Ham, but I guess I have no other choice. Still, what about CStrike's model changing? It was said that it's not fully correct so the more correct way was done in FM. Shall I use FM's or still CStrike's way?

Anyway, good tutorial.
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Old 03-29-2009 , 08:36   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #4

Quote:
Originally Posted by hleV View Post
I hated to enable more modules than just FM & Ham, but I guess I have no other choice. Still, what about CStrike's model changing? It was said that it's not fully correct so the more correct way was done in FM. Shall I use FM's or still CStrike's way?

Anyway, good tutorial.
Thanks.
When we talk about the possible errors like SVC BAD then I fully suggest to use the fakemeta way!
In this tutorial we must understand to use the unique functions that the module provides. As an example to what i've said, we can see that fakemeta offers good forwards like AddToFullPack, SetModel, EntityState, CmdStart and others.
It would be inadequate to use for example the the cstrike fakemeta converted module(made by Exolent) over the cstrike module, because of the big cpu usage.
And remember this tutorial does not want to say not to use fakemeta! It advises to use it only when it needs to be used!
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Last edited by ot_207; 03-29-2009 at 08:38.
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alan_el_more
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Old 03-29-2009 , 08:48   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #5

thank you for the tut
GJ
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Old 03-29-2009 , 08:54   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #6

Quote:
Originally Posted by alan_el_more View Post
thank you for the tut
GJ
Thanks . Hope that you understood its purpose.
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joaquimandrade
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Old 03-29-2009 , 09:54   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #7

Quote:
Originally Posted by hleV View Post
I hated to enable more modules than just FM & Ham, but I guess I have no other choice. Still, what about CStrike's model changing? It was said that it's not fully correct so the more correct way was done in FM. Shall I use FM's or still CStrike's way?

Anyway, good tutorial.
FM, absolutely. But, you can improve Mercylez code. Look at this:

http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...7&postcount=40
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...0&postcount=44

I didn't continue the talk there but, you should remove the tasks. And, if that causes problems put them again.
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Old 03-29-2009 , 12:01   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #8

Quote:
Originally Posted by joaquimandrade View Post
FM, absolutely. But, you can improve Mercylez code. Look at this:

http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...7&postcount=40
http://forums.alliedmods.net/showpos...0&postcount=44

I didn't continue the talk there but, you should remove the tasks. And, if that causes problems put them again.
Yeah it can be improved but we can't ask for perfection in all codes. That tutorial is good as it is and people should follow it!
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Old 03-29-2009 , 12:04   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #9

Quote:
Originally Posted by ot_207 View Post
Yeah it can be improved but we can't ask for perfection in all codes. That tutorial is good as it is and people should follow it!
But it hooks spawn and it uses task. As i said in there is better. I never need to mess with models but, if someday i do, i will surely modify his code.

Basically:

It hooks spawns. That's an error. Then it uses tasks to protect problems coming from changing the models in spawn. If hooking instead the join team event you will not need tasks because you won't have 32 players changing team at the same time.

I appreciate the fact that he discovered why the SVC errors happened but, hooking spawn is stupid because after blocking the "model's reset" nothing happens on spawn so you don't need to re-set the models on spawn.
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Old 03-29-2009 , 12:15   Re: [TUT] Modules and efficient scripting
Reply With Quote #10

Quote:
Originally Posted by joaquimandrade View Post
But it hooks spawn and it uses task. As i said in there is better. I never need to mess with models but, if someday i do, i will surely modify his code.

Basically:

It hooks spawns. That's an error. Then it uses tasks to protect problems coming from changing the models in spawn. Hooking instead the join team event you will not need task. You won't have 32 players changing the team at the same time.
I know, you don't need to explain, this is your situation or any other good coders situation. There are some problems that will be fixed on that tutorial. If a scripter needs it he will modify the code. It depends on experience at first, if a scripter is a beginner he can't be able to see all weak spots of a code. That is a thing which everyone will learn with time.
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