I believe this is the issue with linux hlds/srcds servers starting for the first time and crashing due to a missing appid file.
What you could do is try creating a file within the same folder as srcds_run called steam_appid.txt
containing the appid of the game, in which case yours would be 232370
based on the official application IDs page which can be found HERE
. To break down the steps within the docker container:
$ echo 232370 > steam_appid.txt
$ ./srcds_run -game gesource +maxplayers 16 +map ge_archives +ip 0.0.0.0 -port 27015 +sv_lan 1 -console -usercon
If this works interactively then make sure to build the game image packaged with that file so that the server always starts instead of crashing.